Lillian Moller Gilbreth
Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878–1972) was an industrial engineer and psychologist. She pioneered the application of psychology to time-and-motion studies, which tracked workers in their tasks. Gilbreth was one of the first women to earn a PhD in engineering and is regarded as the first industrial/organizational engineer. A mother of twelve, she applied principles of efficiency in her household, as recounted in the book (and later film) Cheaper by the Dozen, written by two of her children. In 1965 Gilbreth became the first woman elected to the National Academy of Engineering.